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More than half of them occur in sub-Saharan Africa and almost one third in South Asia. Reproductive rights are legal rights and freedoms relating to reproduction and reproductive health.
The International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics has stated that: Violations of reproductive rights include forced pregnancy , forced sterilization and forced abortion.
Forced sterilization was practiced during the first half of the 20th century by many Western countries. Forced sterilization and forced abortion are reported to be currently practiced in countries such as Uzbekistan and China.
In many prehistoric cultures, women assumed a particular cultural role. In hunter-gatherer societies, women were generally the gatherers of plant foods, small animal foods and fish, while men hunted meat from large animals.
In more recent history, gender roles have changed greatly. Originally, starting at a young age, aspirations occupationally are typically veered towards specific directions according to gender.
For poorer women, especially working class women, although this often remained an ideal, [ specify ] economic necessity compelled them to seek employment outside the home.
Many of the occupations that were available to them were lower in pay than those available to men. As changes in the labor market for women came about, availability of employment changed from only "dirty", long hour factory jobs to "cleaner", more respectable office jobs where more education was demanded, women's participation in the U.
These shifts in the labor force led to changes in the attitudes of women at work, allowing for the revolution which resulted in women becoming career and education oriented.
In the s, many female academics, including scientists, avoided having children. However, throughout the s, institutions tried to equalize conditions for men and women in the workplace.
Even so, the inequalities at home stumped women's opportunities to succeed as far as men. Professional women are still generally considered responsible for domestic labor and child care.
As people would say, they have a "double burden" which does not allow them the time and energy to succeed in their careers.
Furthermore, though there has been an increase in the endorsement of egalitarian gender roles in the home by both women and men, a recent research study showed that women focused on issues of morality, fairness, and well-being, while men focused on social conventions.
According to Schiebinger, "Being a scientist and a wife and a mother is a burden in society that expects women more often than men to put family ahead of career.
Movements advocate equality of opportunity for both sexes and equal rights irrespective of gender. Through a combination of economic changes and the efforts of the feminist movement, [ specify ] in recent decades women in many societies now have access to careers beyond the traditional homemaker.
Although a greater number of women are seeking higher education, their salaries are often less than those of men. CBS News claimed in that in the United States women who are ages 30 to 44 and hold a university degree make 62 percent of what similarly qualified men do, a lower rate than in all but three of the 19 countries for which numbers are available.
It also states that " violence against women is a manifestation of historically unequal power relations between men and women ".
Violence against women remains a widespread problem, fueled, especially outside the West, by patriarchal social values, lack of adequate laws, and lack of enforcement of existing laws.
Social norms that exist in many parts of the world hinder progress towards protecting women from violence. Specific forms of violence that affect women include female genital mutilation , sex trafficking , forced prostitution , forced marriage , rape , sexual harassment , honor killings , acid throwing , and dowry related violence.
Governments can be complicit in violence against women, for instance through practices such as stoning as punishment for adultery.
There have also been many forms of violence against women which have been prevalent historically, notably the burning of witches , the sacrifice of widows such as sati and foot binding.
The prosecution of women accused of witchcraft has a long tradition, for example witch trials in the early modern period between the 15th and 18th centuries were common in Europe and in the European colonies in North America.
Today, there remain regions of the world such as parts of Sub-Saharan Africa, rural North India, and Papua New Guinea where belief in witchcraft is held by many people, and women accused of being witches are subjected to serious violence.
In Saudi Arabia , witchcraft remains a crime punishable by death , and in the country beheaded a woman for 'witchcraft and sorcery'.
It is also the case that certain forms of violence against women have been recognized as criminal offenses only during recent decades, and are not universally prohibited, in that many countries continue to allow them.
This is especially the case with marital rape. Sexual violence against women greatly increases during times of war and armed conflict , during military occupation , or ethnic conflicts ; most often in the form of war rape and sexual slavery.
Contemporary examples of sexual violence during war include rape during the Armenian Genocide , rape during the Bangladesh Liberation War , rape in the Bosnian War , rape during the Rwandan Genocide , and rape during Second Congo War.
In Colombia, the armed conflict has also resulted in increased sexual violence against women. Laws and policies on violence against women vary by jurisdiction.
In the European Union , sexual harassment and human trafficking are subject to directives. Women in different parts of the world dress in different ways, with their choices of clothing being influenced by local culture, religious tenets traditions, social norms, and fashion trends, amongst other factors.
Different societies have different ideas about modesty. However, in many jurisdictions, women's choices in regard to dress are not always free, with laws limiting what they may or may not wear.
This is especially the case in regard to Islamic dress. These laws are highly controversial. In , the highest estimated TFR was in Niger 6.
In many parts of the world, there has been a change in family structure over the past few decades. For instance, in the West, there has been a trend of moving away from living arrangements that include the extended family to those which only consist of the nuclear family.
There has also been a trend to move from marital fertility to non-marital fertility. Children born outside marriage may be born to cohabiting couples or to single women.
While births outside marriage are common and fully accepted in some parts of the world, in other places they are highly stigmatized, with unmarried mothers facing ostracism, including violence from family members, and in extreme cases even honor killings.
The social role of the mother differs between cultures. In many parts of the world, women with dependent children are expected to stay at home and dedicate all their energy to child raising, while in other places mothers most often return to paid work see working mother and stay-at-home mother.
Particular religious doctrines have specific stipulations relating to gender roles , social and private interaction between the sexes, appropriate dressing attire for women, and various other issues affecting women and their position in society.
In many countries, these religious teachings influence the criminal law , or the family law of those jurisdictions see Sharia law , for example.
The relation between religion, law and gender equality has been discussed by international organizations. Female education includes areas of gender equality and access to education, and its connection to the alleviation of poverty.
Also involved are the issues of single-sex education and religious education in that the division of education along gender lines as well as religious teachings on education have been traditionally dominant and are still highly relevant in contemporary discussions of educating females as a global consideration.
While the feminist movement has certainly promoted the importance of the issues attached to female education the discussion is wide-ranging and by no means narrowly defined.
In some Western countries, women have surpassed men at many levels of education. World literacy is lower for females than for males.
Younger women today are far more likely to have completed a tertiary qualification: In 21 of 27 OECD countries with comparable data, the number of women graduating from university-level programmes is equal to or exceeds that of men.
There is a common misconception that women have still not advanced in achieving academic degrees. According to Margaret Rossiter, a historian of science, women now earn 54 percent of all bachelor's degrees in the United States.
However, although there are more women holding bachelor's degrees than men, as the level of education increases, the more men tend to fit the statistics [ clarification needed ] instead of women.
At the graduate level , women fill 40 percent of the doctorate degrees 31 percent of them being in engineering.
While to this day women are studying at prestigious universities at the same rate as men, [ clarification needed ] they are not being given the same chance to join faculty.
Sociologist Harriet Zuckerman has observed that the more prestigious an institute is, the more difficult and time-consuming it will be for women to obtain a faculty position there.
In , Harvard University tenured its first woman in chemistry, Cynthia Friend, and in its first woman in physics, Melissa Franklin.
She also observed that women were more likely to hold their first professional positions as instructors and lecturers while men are more likely to work first in tenure positions.
According to Smith and Tang, as of , 65 percent of men and only 40 percent of women held tenured positions and only 29 percent of all scientists and engineers employed as assistant professors in four-year colleges and universities were women.
In , women earned 9 percent of the PhDs awarded in engineering , but only one percent of those women became professors.
In relation, only deans of engineering schools were women, which is less than 1 percent of the total.
Even in psychology , a degree in which women earn the majority of PhDs, they hold a significant amount of fewer tenured positions, roughly 19 percent in Women are underrepresented in government in most countries.
Women's suffrage in the United States was achieved gradually, first at state and local levels, starting in the late 19th century and early 20th century, and in women in the US received universal suffrage, with the passage of the Nineteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution.
Some Western countries were slow to allow women to vote; notably Switzerland , where women gained the right to vote in federal elections in , and in the canton of Appenzell Innerrhoden women were granted the right to vote on local issues only in , when the canton was forced to do so by the Federal Supreme Court of Switzerland ;   and Liechtenstein , in , through a women's suffrage referendum.
Women have, throughout history, made contributions to science, literature and art. One area where women have been permitted most access historically was that of obstetrics and gynecology prior to the 18th century, caring for pregnant women in Europe was undertaken by women; from the mid 18th century onwards medical monitoring of pregnant women started to require rigorous formal education, to which women did not generally have access, therefore the practice was largely transferred to men.
Writing was generally also considered acceptable for upper class women, although achieving success as a female writer in a male dominated world could be very difficult; as a result several women writers adopted a male pen name e.
George Sand , George Eliot. There are music movements, events and genres related to women, women's issues and feminism. In the s, while women comprise a significant proportion of popular music and classical music singers, and a significant proportion of songwriters many of them being singer-songwriters , there are few women record producers , rock critics and rock instrumentalists.
Although there have been a huge number of women composers in classical music, from the Medieval period to the present day, women composers are significantly underrepresented in the commonly performed classical music repertoire , music history textbooks and music encyclopedias; for example, in the Concise Oxford History of Music , Clara Schumann is one of the only female composers who is mentioned.
Women comprise a significant proportion of instrumental soloists in classical music and the percentage of women in orchestras is increasing.
Women are less common as instrumental players in popular music genres such as rock and heavy metal , although there have been a number of notable female instrumentalists and all-female bands.
Women are particularly underrepresented in extreme metal genres. While women were discouraged from composing in the 19th century, and there are few women musicologists , women became involved in music education " According to Jessica Duchen, a music writer for London's The Independent , women musicians in classical music are " According to the UK's Radio 3 editor, Edwina Wolstencroft, the classical music industry has long been open to having women in performance or entertainment roles, but women are much less likely to have positions of authority, such as being the leader of an orchestra.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about adult human females. For other uses, see Woman disambiguation. For the Tammy Wynette song, see Womanhood song.
For other uses, see Women disambiguation. Women's suffrage Muslim countries US. First Second Third Fourth.
Lists Articles Feminists by nationality Literature American feminist literature Feminist comic books. Feminism analytical epistemology ethics existentialism metaphysics Gender equality Gender performativity Social construction of gender Care Ethics Intersectionality Standpoint Theory.
Women's health and Maternal death. Women's clothing varies highly in different cultures. From left to right: Afghan women wearing burqas , Japanese women wearing kimonos , and German women in casual tank tops and miniskirts.
Fashion , Modesty , Clothing , and Hijab by country. Women in society portal Women's history portal Women's sport portal Gender studies portal Feminism portal.
The spelling "wifman" also occurs: Its derivation is uncertain, perhaps from an Old English word which has not survived: Middle Low German has Gör, Göre, meaning 'girl or small child'.
Heywood Dialogue Prouerbes Eng. D, 'The boy thy husbande, and thou the gyrle his wyfe. Early dynastic Egypt 1 ed. The ancient Near East.
Continuum International Publishing Group. Retrieved 29 July Mesopotamia and the ancient Near East. National Earth Science Teachers Association.
Dutch vrouwmens "wife," literally "woman-man. The formation is peculiar to English and Dutch. Replaced older Old English wif and quean as the word for "female human being.
Meaning "wife," now largely restricted to U. Women's liberation is attested from ; women's rights is from , with an isolated example in s.
A woman from the real estate agency called. The woman will be in to clean today. Woman is no longer subordinate to man. Woman, female, lady are nouns referring to adult human beings who are biologically female; that is, capable of bearing offspring.
Woman is the general term. It is neutral, lacking either favorable or unfavorable implication, and is the most commonly used of the three: In scientific, statistical, and other objective use, female is the neutral contrastive term to male and may apply to plants and animals also: Female is sometimes used in disparaging contexts: Although formerly woman was sometimes regarded as demeaning and lady was the term of courtesy, woman is the designation preferred by most modern female adults: Woman is the standard feminine parallel to man.
As a modifier of a plural noun, woman, like man, is exceptional in that the plural form women is used: The use of lady as a term of courtesy has diminished somewhat in recent years the lady of the house , although it still survives in a few set phrases ladies' room; Ladies' Day.